Vitamin K (synthetic fitomenadion)
Vitamin K is fat-soluble vitamin stored in small quantities in the liver, it breaks the light and in alkaline solutions.
Was first suggested the existence of an influence on blood coagulation, in 1929 by Danish biochemist Henrik Dam (Henrik Dam) highlighted the fat-soluble vitamin, which in 1935 was named vitamin K (koagulations vitamin) because of its role in blood clotting. For this work to him in 1943 was awarded the Nobel Prize.
Vitamin K also plays an important role in the formation and the restoration of bones and provides a synthesis of osteocalcin - Tacna bone protein, which crystallizes calcium. It helps prevent osteoporosis, is involved in regulation of redox processes in the body.
Of vitamin K comes mainly from food, partly formed by microorganisms of the intestine. Absorption of vitamin arriving with food, occurs with the participation of bile.
The biological activity of synthetic product retains the properties of natural vitamin K1.
From a group of related substances of most interest are the two main forms of vitamin K found in nature: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2.
Vitamin K1 - a substance that is synthesized in plants and is contained in the leaves.
Vitamin K2 - a substance that is synthesized primarily in the human body by microorganisms (saprophytic bacteria) in the small intestine
Most are rich in vitamin K1 green leafy vegetables, which give 50 to 800 micrograms of vitamin K per 100 grams of food. Also, vitamin K include: green tomatoes, rose hips. spinach, cabbage (Brussels and color), nettles, pine needles, oats, soybeans, rye, wheat. Herbs rich in vitamin K: Alfalfa, green tea, kelp, nettle, oats, and lady's purse. Contained significantly less vitamin K in roots and fruits.
From foods most rich content of this vitamin in the liver of pigs, eggs.
Synthesis in the body
Vitamin K is also synthesized in the human gut microflora. It should be remembered that despite the fact that vitamin K is in a wide range of vegetable foods, however, because vitamin is fat soluble, so that the process of digestion was carried out normally (no matter whether it is a product of bacterial activity or derived from food) in the intestine should be a little fat.
The need for vitamin K, that is the amount which is necessary to prevent deficiency in normal conditions, 1 microgram per kilogram of body weight per day. With a weight of 60 kg man needs 60 mcg vitamin K per day. A typical diet contains 300 to 500 micrograms of vitamin K per day. Vitamin A deficiency - a rare phenomenon, except when the power is severely limited, or when the interaction with medications affect the absorption of the vitamin. Even without the food sources of well-functioning population of intestinal bacteria can cause enough vitamin C.
Newborns breastfed at risk to acquire a deficiency of vitamin K, because human milk contains enough vitamin as the intestinal flora they have still not grown up to him to produce the necessary quantities.
The need for vitamin K in neonates is in the first days of life, 10.12 mg.
Modern mixtures contain about 4 micrograms of vitamin K to 100 calories, which under normal circumstances would be sufficient to meet the needs of the organism.
Age (years) - Vitamin K (mcg)
Infants 0-0.5 - 5
0.5-1 - 10
Children 1-3 - 15
4.6 - 20
10.7 - 30
Males 11-14 - 45
15-18 - 65
19-24 - 70
25-50 - 80
51 and older - 80
Females 11-14 - 45
15-18 - 55
19-24 - 60
25-50 - 65
51 and older - 65
during pregnancy - 65
during the lactation period - 65
Antibiotics increase the required rate of vitamin K supplements. Antibiotics that kill bacteria, affects the process of its synthesis by intestinal bacteria. Antibiotics also affect the absorption of vitamin K.
In the last trimester of pregnancy to take large doses of synthetic vitamin K is not recommended because it can lead to toxic reactions newborn.
Very large doses of vitamin K can accumulate in the body and cause redness and sweating.
Symptoms of hypovitaminosis
Deficiency of vitamin K in the organism leads to the development of hemorrhagic syndrome.
Newborn vitamin K is shown bleeding from mouth, nose, navel, urinary tract infections. Appear gastrointestinal bleeding, hematemesis, liquid, tarry stools, intradermal and subcutaneous.
Adult manifestations depend on the severity of vitamin A deficiency and manifested intradermal and subcutaneous hemorrhage, bleeding gums, nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding.
An early sign of hypovitaminosis K is a low content of prothrombin in the blood (gipoprotrombinemiey). By reducing the content of prothrombin to 35% risk of hemorrhage occurs in trauma, with a decrease in the prothrombin content of 15-20% may develop severe bleeding.
Deficiency of vitamin K may develop in cholelithiasis, and prolonged intravenous nutrition, in violation of Education and bile secretion (infectious and toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, cancer of the pancreas, biliary dyskinesia), as well as during long-term antibiotics or sulfonamides, can inhibit the intestinal flora that synthesize vitamin K.
One of the main causes of hypovitaminosis is also taking anticoagulants. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases by traditional medicine often involves the use of warfarin (Coumadin) and similar "blood-thinning" drugs, which destroy almost all the vitamin K is available in the body.
To deficiency of vitamin K also results in cancer chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy and the use of anticonvulsants. Failure may be due to gastro-intestinal disorders. Since most of the vitamin K in the body is synthesized intestinal microflora, its deficiency is not uncommon for people with dysbiosis.
The cause of hypo-and avitaminosis K can also be a disease accompanied by malabsorption of fat of the intestinal wall (diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, dysentery, diseases of the pancreas).
It is important to remember that calcium intake sufficient to achieve the ratio between calcium and phosphorus in excess of 2: 1, affects the synthesis of vitamin K or on its absorption and may cause internal bleeding.
Great reception (about 2200 ME / day) of vitamin E may reduce the absorption of vitamin K from the gastrointestinal tract and interfere with normal blood clotting.
It must be remembered that the use of vitamin K in hemophilia and diseases Verlgofa not effective.