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Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B1 - water-soluble vitamin, easily destroyed by heat treatment in an alkaline environment. 

Animal sources

Meat (pork, beef), liver, poultry, egg yolk, fish

Plant sources

Bread and bread made of flour, meal, cereals (unprocessed rice, oatmeal), wheat germ, rice bran, mustard field, vegetables (asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts), legumes (peas), nuts, oranges, raisins, plums, prunes, rose hips, berries (strawberries forest, swamp blueberry, black currant, sea buckthorn krushevidnaya), brewer's yeast, algae (spirulina, kelp), herbs (alfalfa, parsley, peppermint, raspberry leaf, sage, clover, sorrel, burdock root, catnip cat, cayenne pepper, fennel seeds, chamomile, fenugreek, hops, nettle, oat straw)

Synthesis in the body

Synthesized by the microflora of the colon

Action

Vitamin B1 is required for oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids (pyruvic and lactic), the synthesis of acetylcholine, it is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and associated energy, fat, protein, water-salt metabolism, has a regulating effect on the trophic and the nervous system.

Thiamine enhances circulation and is involved in haemopoiesis.

Thiamine optimizes cognitive activity and brain function. He has a positive effect on the level of energy, growth, normal appetite, ability to learn and is necessary for muscle tone of the digestive tract, stomach and heart. Thiamine acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from the damaging effects of aging, alcohol and tobacco.

Daily maintenance


Age - mg B1

0-1/2 - 0,4

1 / 2 -1 - 0,4

3.1 - 0.5

4.6 - 0.8

7-10 - 0.9

Men

11-14 - 1,2

15-18 - 1,4

19-59 - 1,5

60-74 - 1,2

Older than 75 - 1,4

Women

11-14 - 1,2

15-18 - 1,3

19-59 - 1,3

60-74 - 1,1

Older than 75 - 1,3

Pregnant 0.4

Lactating 0.6

The vast majority of people in need of supplementation of vitamin B1. For example, the more thiamine needed if a large part of the diet of cooked food, or refined flour and cereal products. People who use alcohol and tea, also require higher doses.

The need for vitamin B1 increased during illness and convalescence, in stressful situations, during exercise, during pregnancy and lactation, in patients with hyperthyroidism.

In addition, the need for thiamine increases with age: the elderly is reduced ability to absorb and metabolize thiamine, they have shown an increased dosage of B1.
Symptoms of hypovitaminosis

At full avitaminosis B1 develops the disease of beri-beri: the body is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, and accumulate lactic and pyruvic acid. In this case, observed damage to the nervous system (polyneuritis, which may end in paralysis), the heart muscle (it loses the ability to effectively shrink the heart of the patient increases, quickens the pulse), gastrointestinal tract (decreased appetite, constipation appear). Patients with a sharp depletion of the total, partial or widespread swelling.

The primary symptoms develop hypovitaminosis B1 are:

increased irritability, a feeling of inner restlessness, tearfulness,

depression,

insomnia (occasionally resistant)

memory loss,

numbness in hands and feet,

pain

itch

impairment of coordination,

chill at room temperature,

disruption of the brain

Increased mental and physical fatigue;

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (peculiar to patients suffering from alcoholism)

loss of appetite,

feeling of heaviness or burning in the epigastric region,

nausea,

constipation,

diarrhea,

weight loss

Liver enlargement

shortness of breath, even at low physical activity,

tachycardia,

hypotension,

acute cardiovascular failure (may develop in some cases, the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment purposes).

Deficiency of vitamin B1 in the blood serum occurs in 25% of AIDS patients. Chronic thiamine deficiency in AIDS patients leads to a variety of neurological symptoms, leading to anorexia and weight loss.

Thiamine supplementation is also required when applying diuretic drugs in hypertension, congestive heart failure, because they accelerate its excretion.

Vitamin B1 improves the functioning of the nervous system and reduces pain in various neurological diseases. Shown at:

In dermatological practice, thiamine is used in dermatoses of neurogenic origin, skin ulcers of different etiology, pyoderma, eczema, psoriasis.

Metabolic and endocrine system diseases (hyperthyroidism, diabetes, obesity), are also an indication to receive thiamine.

Vitamin B1 acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from the damaging effects of aging, alcohol and tobacco.

It is advisable to use in the production of thiamine in contact with carbon disulfide, tetraethyl lead, while working in hot shops.

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