Vitamin PP exists in two forms - nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.
Sources of animals:
Beef liver, eggs, fish, milk, pork
Yeast, broccoli, carrots, cheese, corn flour, dandelion leaves, dates, peanuts, potatoes, tomatoes, wheat germ, whole grains.
Herbs rich in vitamin PP: alfalfa, burdock root, catnip, cayenne pepper, chamomile, chickweed, eyebright, fennel seed, fenugreek, ginseng, hops, horsetail, mullein, nettle, oats, parsley, peppermint, raspberry leaves, red clover, rose hips, sage, sorrel.
Active effect of vitamin PP on metabolic processes due to its being a member of niacinamid adenindinukleotida (NAD) and niacinamid adenindinukleotida phosphate (NADP), is a cofactor of some enzymes. In particular, Niacinamide is a member of kodegidraz which transmit the hydrogen to flavoproteinovym enzymes, and thus regulates the redox processes in the body.
Niacin - is the only vitamin that conventional medicine considers drug. It is possible that he is actually the most effective "medicine", normalizing blood cholesterol, of all. People who have survived a myocardial infarction, niacin increases the chances of staying alive to a greater extent than pharmaceuticals. That was the conclusion of the study, entitled "Coronary drug project" in which niacin was compared with two anticholesterol drugs, to determine what is best constrains nonfatal heart attack and prolong life for a long time after myocardial infarction. Even several years after cessation of treatment the frequency of deaths was lower only among those who took niacin.
Vitamin PP - Part B-complex, which is crucial for energy production and maintaining well-being on many levels, especially for heart health and optimal circulation. He has been involved in more than half a hundred reactions, in which sugar and fat are converted into energy. It is also necessary for metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the conversion of fats into substances called eicosanoids - hormone-like agents that control the metabolic pathways of the body.
Niacin at the same time struggling with the four major risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
High LDL-cholesterol. This "bad" form of cholesterol accumulates on the inside walls of arteries, restricting blood flow and leading to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Niacin supplements cause a reduction in LDL-cholesterol.
Low HDL-cholesterol. Low concentrations of "good" cholesterol - one of the surest harbingers of cardiovascular disease because HDL helps clean the circulatory system of LDL.
Elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Gummy byproduct of LDL - lipoprotein (a) - in the past few years has been considered an independent risk factor for heart disease - as dangerous as high blood pressure, smoking, obesity and total cholesterol levels. It contributes to clogged arteries and increases the likelihood of blood clots. The higher the level, the greater the risk. None of the known drugs does not have any impact on the high number of lipoprotein (a). However, niacin, together with vitamin C reduces the associated risk.
High triglycerides. As a recently recognized as an independent risk factor that has critical importance, these blood fats signal the presence of insulin disorders - diabetes type II - and hypertension. The best way to deal with high triglyceride levels - to dramatically reduce intake of sugar and other carbohydrates, but the addition of niacin may thus provide strong support, reducing triglyceride levels.
The use of nicotinamide recommended for treatment of pathological conditions:
Diabetes. Since 1940, science is well known that patients with type I diabetes require insulin injections less if they regularly take nicotinamide. This substance is also capable to a certain extent to prevent damage to the pancreas, leading to loss of body ability to produce its own insulin.
Osteoarthritis. Nicotinamide also reduces pain and improves mobility of joints in osteoarthritis.
Other states. Like niacin, nicotinamide has a mild sedative and is useful in treating a variety of emotional and neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, decreased attention, alcoholism and schizophrenia. In large doses, it acts as an antioxidant and laboratory studies in cell cultures was active against the virus HIV16.
Daily requirement for nicotinic acid (and nicotinamide) is the adult of about 20 mg, with heavy physical labor - about 25 mg, for children from 6 months to 1 year - 6 mg, from 1 to 1.5 years - 9 mg ; from 1,5 to 2 years - 10 mg, 3 to 4 years - 12 mg, 5 to 6 years - 13 mg, from 7 to 10 years - 15 mg, 11 to 13 years - 19 mg for boys 14-17 years - 21 mg for girls aged 14-17 - 18 mg.
Symptoms of hypovitaminosis
Pellagra, corroding ulcers, dementia, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, pain in extremities, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscle weakness, cracking and inflammation.