SA Kiselyov, the Gynecologist geneticist, Novosibirsk
Currently, certain that the prenatal period of human development is largely determines his whole life. Lays the foundation for health at the stage of maternal and paternal germ cells during fertilization and consistently at all stages of ontogeny. It is from under what conditions were these processes depends on the health of the newborn and its adaptation to life. Due to the serious deterioration of health of the population of reproductive age, accompanied, including the development of a number of deficiency states (immunodeficiency, protein, vitamin and mineral deficiencies), the birth of healthy offspring becomes problematic. Since the curing develop complications - a task far more complicated than prevent its development, particularly urgent prevention.
In this context, it becomes more important dietetics, by allowing a balanced diet to eliminate lack of vitamins, minerals, proteins in pregnant and to create optimal conditions for fetal development. As world practice shows, one of the most appropriate and justified from the biological and economic point of view of alternative ways of streamlining the supply is a broad introduction to the massive human nutrition biologically active additives (BAA). Supplements - a source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, dietary components, regenerating the functional activity of organs and systems that enhance the body's resistance to adverse environmental factors.
Consequently, the clear need for dietary supplements as women planning pregnancy, and bears it. Proved that more than 90% of cases of fetal malnutrition linked to folic acid deficiency during pregnancy, especially during the period of organogenesis (ie, before the ninth week of ontogenesis).
Thus, for the prevention of birth defects just need a couple prekontseptualny vitamins and dietary supplements that contain a sufficient amount of folic acid for 2-4 months.
Improvement of women prior to conception of the body includes a number of important points: Modernization foci of chronic infection, correction of immunity, the achievement of stable remission of chronic diseases, creation of a good emotional attitude.
As a preliminary training in the first trimester of pregnancy is recommended acceptance of integrated Green Star (1 capsule 1-2 times a day), Discovery CHARM (1 tablet 1 time a day, preferably in the morning), laminarin (1 tablet 1 once a day), jelly (1-2 glasses a day), COMPLEX WITH VITAMIN "C" (1 tablet 1-2 times daily).
These biologically active additives is better to alternate after the monthly rate of reception. It must be remembered that in the winter and early spring, especially the need for vitamins is particularly high. All these activities greatly help to avoid some complications in the first trimester of pregnancy, whose value can not be overestimated.
During fetal development during pregnancy produce (according to K. Stockard and PT Svetlov) so-called critical periods in which the fetus is most sensitive to the effects of damaging environmental factors. During embryogenesis, these two periods: implantation (introduction of the ovum in the uterine wall), corresponding to 08.07 the day of embryogenesis, and during an intense organogenesis and placentation - it's 3-8 weeks of pregnancy.
Thus, to reduce the frequency of deaths of embryos and birth defects needs to protect a woman's body from the adverse effects of the environment is in the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. In this regard, appropriate use of natural vitamin "E" at a dose of 400 IU is gel for 1 day, rates of 10-15 days with a break of two weeks.
With the development of complications in the first trimester of pregnancy (the threat of termination, early preeclampsia), the above supplements are perfectly combined with standard drug therapy used in obstetric practice. In this case, the clinical manifestations of these complications cropped on average 7-10 days earlier than women not taking supplements, which is extremely important in reducing the drug load on the embryo and, subsequently, on the fetus.
In the presence of a pregnant woman burdened obstetric history (habitual miscarriage, chronic urogenital infections, and severe forms of late gestosis), especially in combination with somatic pathology (obesity, varicose veins, heart diseases, diabetes, etc.) appropriate screening of the hemostatic system to avoid antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to identify groups at risk of developing preeclampsia. In these cases, according to indications, especially in the first trimester, the priority of choice is a BAA ESSENTSIAL OIL (Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in a dose of 1-3 gel daily rates of up to 6 months).
Use of fatty acids contributes to the normalization of prostaglandin synthesis, the violation of which is one of the main starting points of late gestosis of pregnancy as a disease of adaptation. In many cases the use of fatty acids can reduce the dose or even avoided taking anti proximity, particularly aspirin.
Study of hemostasis and identification of antibodies to phospholipids is necessary in these cases once every six weeks (with no clinical signs).
When pregnant, you should pay particular attention to thyroid function. The entire period of embryonic and fetogeneza controlled by the presence of thyroid hormones: growth and differentiation of bone tissue, brain development, maturation of fetal organs and systems. No other hormones do not exert such influence on the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) of the fetus, as thyroid hormones. Thyroid fetus starts to synthesize the hormones at 4-7-week embryo, at 10-12 weeks of gains the ability to accumulate iodine, secretory activity appears at 19-22 weeks of pregnancy. Activity and development of the fetal gland depends entirely on the iodine intake of the mother's body.
According to WHO, the lack of iodine in food and water is the most common cause of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy causes excessive stimulation of the thyroid gland with the subsequent formation of goitre. Daily requirement of iodine for pregnant and breastfeeding is 230-260 mg / day. Almost every pregnant woman should be consulted endocrinologist (EB Kravets, 1998). Treatment giperterioza (toxic goiter) and autoimmune thyroiditis - a prerogative of endocrinologists. With reduced thyroid function, with eutireoidnom goiter during pregnancy and its outcome is largely determined by whether women received iodine prophylaxis before and during pregnancy in their diet. In this case, during pregnancy and lactation optimal combination of drug therapy (if necessary) with the admission of such supplements ART LIFE , like Green Star, laminarin, Discovery CHARM, vitamin-mineral Kiselyov, taking into account the daily requirement of iodine.
The primary cause of prenatally emerging pathology of the fetus and newborn is placental insufficiency (PLN). According to modern views, a placental insufficiency understood syndrome, morphological and functional changes in the placenta and is the result of a complex reaction of the fetus and placenta in various pathological conditions of the parent body. In this case, there is a complex disruption of transport, trophic, endocrine and metabolic functions of the placenta, the underlying pathology of the fetus and newborn. (Serov VN, et al., 1989)
GM Saveliev et al. (1991) note that PLN may lead to slower development and growth of the fetus and its intra-uterine malnutrition as a result of violations of the nutrient (trophic) function of the placenta, fetal hypoxia due to impaired gas exchange in the placenta. Often the pathology of the fetus is The combined character. In studying the effects of PLN revealed violations of newborn adaptation and subsequent further development of the child, as well as high frequency of CNS lesions in these children.
Placental insufficiency - a phenomenon polietiologic, therefore, identify the main reasons for its development will correctly identify a set of diagnostic and therapeutic measures and to prevent possible complications.
Leading role in the development of placental insufficiency owned preeclampsia pregnancy, cause of which is the absence of adaptive systems of the mother to adequately meet the needs of the developing fetus, ie, preeclampsia may be regarded as a syndrome of maladaptation in pregnancy (MD Pasman NM, et al., 1997).