Main provisions of vegetarianism
As follows from the encyclopedia, vegetarianism - is the common name of supply systems, excluding or restricting the consumption of animal products, mainly related to the murder of these animals. The origins of vegetarianism go back to ancient antiquity. Suffice it to say that one of the apologists of vegetarianism is an ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, who lived in the VI century BC. er. He became a vegetarian, having mastered the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. Worth to believe that the souls of the dead continue to live in the bodies of animals and eating of wild game and livestock immediately became something of cannibalism. In addition, Pythagoras believed that eating meat of dead animals contributes to the formation of harmful substances in the body, clogging the human body and cause chronic poisoning.
By the way, Pythagoras revealed to the world and a stunning example of tolerance: claiming that the meat - - invalid temptation, he nevertheless generously regaled them of their guests.
In Russia, mass vegetarian sentiment began to appear only in the XIX century, and then for the most part among the religious sects and certain groups of intellectuals who believed that it starts with vegetarianism bodily and spiritual purification.
Thus, vegetarianism - not only and not the power supply system, but above all a philosophical doctrine, which rests on a kind of moral and ethical basis. Not for nothing is our great zetetic - Leo Tolstoy in his later years, believed that one should abandon the use of meat primarily because of moral considerations. Being a staunch supporter of the idea of resisting evil with violence, he shortly before his death, wrote that meat-eating - a relic of the grossest barbarism, and the transition to vegetarianism is the most right and natural consequence of education.
To some extent vegetarians - it pacifists in the culinary field. "I'll never be the devourer of corpses of dead animals" - that is their main slogan.
The term vegetarian comes from the Latin vegetarius, which means "vegetable". However, pure vegetarians, or starovegetariantsy who eat only vegetation and any other food except egg, cheese, milk, etc., are rare. Vegans are called vegans.
In our time more often mladovegetariantsy, include in your diet milk, dairy products and poultry. Hence it is their second name - ovolaktovegetariantsy (from Latin ovum - the egg and laktis - milk).
And yet, despite these differences, the general rule for all who consider themselves vegetarian movement is the complete elimination of food products obtained by killing animals.
Vegetarians do not just do not see any merit in the meat diet, but, moreover, consider it physiologically acceptable to the human body, pushing the multiple anatomical and physiological and zoological evidence of his innocence.
According to their firm belief that the human digestive system is designed to process and assimilate predominantly vegetarian diet, as evidenced by the following arguments.
First, the system of human teeth with very weak incisors inconvenient for tearing flesh, and, unlike predators, articulation of the mandible gives a person the ability to make lateral chewing movements characteristic of herbivores.
Secondly, human saliva is released abundantly and serves mostly to break down starch, whereas saliva of predators scant and mainly serves to wet, ensuring easy swallowing food.
Third, human milk, unlike milk predators, contains a lot of milk sugar - lactose and relatively little protein and fat.
Fourth, the length of the intestine in humans of 10-13 times the length of the body, while the predators only 3-6 times.
The latter circumstance is due to the fact that in the process of feeding meat body does not get fiber, splitting which occurs in the colon and requires a lot of time. Therefore, predators are not particularly need to develop a long and large intestine and, unlike humans, have no appendix.
As evidence that our ancestors were vegetarian, but not meat eater, and the data indicate electron microscopy of fossil teeth of great apes. Features of their microstructure were typical especially for animals that feed on fruits and nuts. Vegetarians believe that technological progress has deprived humanity of the natural mind and memory, to lull survival instinct and will to live, making the physical infirmity of almost a distinguishing mark of spirituality.
People have become willing slaves own stomach, his faithful servants and dumb subjects. They forgot that began its ascent up the steep steps of evolution as the Fruit and the entire device of the human body is still set on the consumption of foods of plant origin. For the dubious pleasure of eating the meat people are paying their own health and freedom.
It's no wonder that the adherents of plant foods are overly aggressive in defending their beliefs, as long-standing dispute between them and the "meat eater" rate is the health of all humanity.
Physiological aspects of vegetarianism
What is the main difference between food meat and vegetarian meals? Although the animals and plant proteins are composed of the same chemical elements and compounds, but the meat meal contains more polyunsaturated fats trudnousvoyaemyh and purine compounds. It is believed that an excess of these substances in the internal environment of an organism leads to the acidification of the blood and is the main reason for the accumulation of toxins at the cellular level. Besides food and meat involves significant consumption of salt, also violates the chemical balance in the body. As far as plant foods, it is, on the contrary, alkalify blood and, along with the delivery of some vegetable proteins, enters the body, natural vitamins, biologically active substances.
It is considered that meat gives strength ", but studies of Belgian scientists who analyzed the data at different fatigue human nutrition, show that meat-eaters get tired and a half times faster than those who do not eat meat.
Scientists estimate that vegetable food is 25 times less nitrogen intoxication slags than mixed. Hence the amazing endurance of vegetarians. So what gives vegetarian energy? This remarkable book is devoted to the Swiss professor Max Birher - Benner, "Fundamentals of nutritional treatment on the basis of energy, which was published in Russian in 1914. The scientist believes that plant foods gives the body the energy it received from the Sun. And if it is also crude, then the person receives the maximum energy. In accordance with these views, the scientist-clinician in the middle of XIX century, successfully treating severely ill patients. (It will still be discussed in the second part of this book devoted to a separate feed.)
As for meat, with its ability to "support forces", the explanation lies in the following. Meat contains many substances that excite the nervous system, creating in him a feeling of fullness and vivacity, but the feeling is the same as under the action of other agents (coffee, alcohol), passes, and no energy charging people do not get. On the contrary, in order to digest meat, the body must work hard, which means that even before you get should first spend a considerable amount of energy.
There are other circumstances that encourage with great caution in animal protein - a protein. One is the balance of hormones in our body, which defines our unique individuality. There is no such laboratories in the world that would be able to pinpoint our hormonal structure. And now we eat meat, usually polovozrelovogo cattle, with characteristic is given individual hormonal structure, and even enhanced by hormonal preparations for an intensive set of mass during feeding. As a result of hormonal alien invasion into the internal environment of the human body have been violated to common, fat and salt metabolism. It is not excluded that the interaction of heterogeneous origin of hormones gives the distortion of the biochemical processes in the body, which may have cancer. And this hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that cancer patients are disproportionately among meat eaters than among vegetarians.
Depending on whether contained in a particular protein, essential and nonessential amino acids in a suitable proportion, the proteins have different physiological value. In everyday life is widely believed, as if full-proteins are found only in animal products. But it's just corny and confusing the situation is quite different. Vegetarians believe that not only the nuts and oilseeds, and vegetables and herbs contain a well-balanced proteins, proteins of fruit - a little worse, and in wheat to 14% protein, but of these only 4% of protein, balanced amino acids, approaching composition of proteins of the human body, so the remaining 10% due to lack of "component parts" (so-called essential amino acids) the body is forced to use as "fuel", energy material.
To say that a protein - too expensive source of energy. He also gives a harmful waste in the form of nitrogenous compounds.
For example, take at least ammonia, which is the end product of protein breakdown in the body. To neutralize this poison in the form of urea body is forced to spend its reserves of carbon dioxide, it is necessary for the occurrence of all biochemical reactions including the biosynthesis of proteins. It turns out that taking dietary amino acids on the unbalanced animal proteins, we thus further and prevents your body how to digest well-balanced part of the grain protein. Everything else is worse unbalanced protein absorbed from the intestine. In connection with the often arise metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, and formed a favorable background for the development of other ailments.
Incidentally, it should be noted, and the fact that excess meat protein in the diet provokes appendicitis - inflammation of the appendix cecum.
This is explained by the fact that the excessive consumption of meat, we introduce in the gastrointestinal tract of many purine bases and extractives that cause intestinal putrefaction and poisoning the body. Established that the abundant meat food inhibits the activity beneficial gut microflora, contributing to the emergence of such adverse events, such as bacteria overgrowth and intestinal atony.
The fact that the meat meal replete with toxic products, knew even in Ancient Near East. There even existed a kind of penalty when sentenced to death were fed only boiled meat, and they died in terrible agony of self-poisoning in a 28-day 30, ie, much earlier than would have died peacefully and painlessly, with full fasting.
Founder of the national Biochemistry A. Danilevsky at the end of the last century came to a conclusion that one of the causes of human irritability and bad moods can be systematically eating meat. Their point of view, he justified the results of a comparative survey of hunting tribes, eating mostly meat, and vegetarian tribes. And this is not surprising because the major toxic product, which saturates the body with excessive consumption of animal food is uric acid. In the urine of meat eaters it contains 5 times more than in the urine of vegetarians. Its negative effects on the central nervous system has proved in his experiments, Pavlov, matching the dogs the portal vein with the inferior vena cava. As a result of this operation is no longer disposed of uric acid by the liver, and the dogs under the influence of excess in the blood become angry and irritable, but instinctively find a way out, stop eating meat.
In addition to the foregoing, it would not hurt to think about the fact that with the meat in the organism can get, and chemicals used in agriculture for pest control. Herbivores must pass through the stomach hundreds of tons of plant material, and poisons that do not have no color, no smell, no taste, accumulate in their tissues from month to month, year after year.
Suffice it to say that DDT and other organochlorine pesticides found in postmortem autopsies in adipose tissue from people who never in his lifetime had no contact with these substances, but merely eating meat.
About what the spread currently have chemicals, evidenced by the discovery of pesticides in the fat of scientists who do you think? Penguins in Antarctica! Area of distribution of them, as is known, is far from "civilized" lands.
But is particularly harmful to human health roasts, as during frying are formed in the nitrosamines that are carcinogenic properties. The same thing happens when smoking. Therefore, gastric cancer is most until recently was distributed to the Japanese, whose diet dominated by smoked fish. Now, thanks to scientific and reasonable diet and lifestyle for the Japanese life expectancy have come to the first place.
Excessive attachment to meat leads to premature puberty in children. In this case, there is evidence that the age of sexual potency disappears from meat-eaters before vegetarians.
But more than savory information gleaned from the book by K. Moes-Oskragello "natural food of man." At the end of the last century cannibal, I mean the man-eaters from the island of Sumatra, was considered the meat of their neighbors-vegetarians pleasant to the taste and smell, while the meat of British sailors, which they also ate in the case, it was bitter and tasteless, and, moreover, quickly deteriorates . Oskragello explains this by saying that far from the ideas of vegetarianism sailors Europeans ate almost as predators, with the only difference being that the meat is washed down with rum.
Another indisputable proof that the human body is not adapted to consume large quantities of animal protein, is a low protein content in human milk, which is nevertheless intended to accelerate the building of mass newborn baby. But here is a man out of infancy, its growth slows and protein in the percentage it takes twice - three times!
If an excess of even the lean meat is harmful to health, the fat is harmful in two ways. This is because animal fats are rich in saturated fatty acids required for the formation of compounds in the body with cholesterol enhanced synthesis of cholesterol as compared with the contained in vegetable oils in unsaturated fatty acids. Excessive consumption of foods of animal fats increases the blood content of the largest fat globules - chylomicrons, the regulation of their content in the blood is broken, can also increase blood clotting. In the blood increases the amount of cholesterol that deposits in the arteries (atherosclerosis and it is!). Taken together, these contribute to the deposition of plaques on the walls of blood vessels that leads to disruption of blood flow.
Consumption of fatty meat is especially dangerous for patients with atherosclerosis. Doctors ambulance know that most often they have to travel over the holidays after myocardial infarction and heavy Sunday lunch, when people eat a lot of triggers release of excess cholesterol foods: ham, pork, sausages, eggs, etc.
Another extremely negative consequence becomes a festive meal that excess cholesterol is not absorbed by the blood, can be partially allocated to the intestinal lumen, causing there the development of malignant tumors.
Besides food rich in fat increases the secretion of bile, which is influenced by excess bacteria in the intestine is converted into carcinogens - substances that also contribute to the development of cancer, so people with higher bile secretion often suffer from bowel cancer.
It should be borne in mind that excess protein in the body is not delayed. And, because the liver is involved in the metabolism of proteins, and kidneys eliminate products of protein metabolism, increased protein load on the liver and kidney leads to an increase in the size of these bodies - their hypertrophy.
Enhanced Protein nutrition leads to overexcitation of the nervous system that gradually becomes a cause of neurosis.
Violation of protein metabolism contribute to the development of hypovitaminosis A and B6, reduces tolerance - the susceptibility to mental and physical stress - and creates the preconditions for the emergence of allergy of the body due to the formation of antibodies to its own tissues.
The increased amount of protein in food violates the physiology of digestion. First increased and then inhibited the secretion of gastric juice, which impairs digestion.
Thus, the above can make the following conclusions.
1. With a rich meat diet is a constant poisoning of the body harmful products of protein breakdown, especially for people leading a sedentary lifestyle. Under these conditions the intestinal atony and constipation, which intensifies the process of decay. Against this background, is self-poisoning organism, contribute to disruption of metabolic processes and the emergence of associated diseases.
2. The need for meat, that they felt "inveterate" meat-eaters, due to a stimulating effect on the nervous system of extractives, which are particularly rich in fish and meat broths (soups and broths). This excitation gives the false impression of "force". In humans, there is not surmountable craving for meat and fish, as well as strong coffee or tea as a stimulating substance.
3. With abundant consumption of meat meal containing nitrogenous substances in the body is disturbed acid-base balance, which may be the cause of diseases such as urine acid diathesis and gout.
4. Meat and fish meal requires a significant consumption of salt, which is also harmful to the body.
5. Meat and poultry are foods high in DDT and other pesticides (13-fold higher than in vegetables and cereals).
6. To enhance growth and disease control animals injected hormones and antibiotics, which remain in them after death. In the meat of dead animals found also introduced them to prevent various diseases vaccines and serums, and their effect on people, usually not taken into account.
7. During the slaughter in animals, a premonition of his death, produced a large number of hormones and bioactive substances that may have an additional negative effect on metabolic processes in the human body.
8. About 30 species of various disease (from worms to defeat viral infections) may cause infection through the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin - meat, poultry, eggs and milk.
9. Consumption of meat and fish products, stimulate the desire of our ancestors to hunt, affects the behavioral responses of people - causes increased excitability, irritability and aggressiveness.
From plant food in the main body gets enough vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids, carbohydrates, pectin and cellulose. If widely combine protein sources of vegetable origin, you can get, and adequate amounts of essential amino acids.
On top of what was said should be emphasized that the main advantage of vegetarian food in front of an ordinary mixed diet, a reduced risk of atherosclerosis - a vegetarian diet helps normalize blood pressure by reducing blood viscosity.
Do vegetarians rarely observed tumor bowel disease, they are a better flow of bile and the liver.
It should also say that the refusal of meat there are other positive effects: increased resistance to infectious diseases, normal sleep, improves memory, besides vegetarianism - is primarily a healthy lifestyle would be to refrain from smoking and alcohol.
Vegetarians are proud to note that at different times of the adherents of this power system have been many famous scientists, philosophers, writers, artists: Epicurus, Plato, Socrates, Diogenes, John Chrysostom, Ovid, Plutarch, Seneca, Voltaire, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Byron Lamartine, George Bernard Shaw, Ilya Repin, R. Kent, again, Tolstoy. Almost all of them lived a long and fruitful life.
Currently, among vegetarians can meet these celebrities and film business, as Madonna and Michael Jackson, Elizabeth Taylor and Paul McCartney. Now there are more than 800 million followers of the vegetarian diet.
Criticism of vegetarianism
Since detailed discussion of vegetarianism as one of the most popular nutrition systems that claim to be called ideal, I want to emphasize again that this is not just a way to power, but also a philosophical doctrine, so it is not surprising that among the vegetarians were a lot of outstanding people and genuine humanists. However, it seems that those are made for reasons probably unrelated to the nature of their food. Enough in this regard to remember that Adolf Hitler was also a true vegetarian.
Adoption of the morality of vegetarianism, in my opinion, most of them fondly. From its inception, the idea of switching to vegetable diet was based on a material basis - economic, since the need for limited consumption of meat in those days was due to its acute shortage and, consequently, expensive.
Apologists for vegetarianism in an attempt to somehow justify theoretically their views, argue that people in their natural data (the structure of teeth, hands, and gastrointestinal tract) is intended to be a vegan, like apes - orangutans and chimpanzees, which have a common ancestor with us . In the wild, de, in adulthood, they eat only vegetarian food, and yet extremely strong and healthy. Therefore, for human food meat is unnatural.
"Look at yourself in the mirror - say vegetarians - if you have sharp teeth and claws like predators that eat only meat?"
I did not look at myself in the mirror and looked into the "Medical Encyclopedia", and that's what I saw there: "In humans, 32 permanent teeth. Each half of the upper and lower jaws is: 2 and 1 incisor tusk. Hence, fangs we still have, by the way, and their number is not less than the predators. Tigers 4 canines, and the bear just as much. True, our canines is considerably shorter, and All the same, each of us more than once convinced of their own experience that they are well suited for eating meat. By the way, some predators are not what the canines and the teeth and does not, and did, manage to digest-sized chunks, almost from themselves (sea anemones, for example). So that the presence of canines, as well as their absence is not an exhaustive proof of the tendency toward one or another way of nutrition.
Maybe with the monkeys are vegetarians that got it wrong? Similarly, very small mistake! Alas, much to the regret of adherents of vegetable food, the monkeys are not vegetarians. Yes, for the most part, of necessity, certain conditions of existence, they feed mainly on plants, but the case is also readily eat insects and small animals and chimpanzees can and does eat their relatives - the monkeys of other species.
The structure of the gastrointestinal tract of people more like the structure of the digestive system of a tiger than a cow. Judge for yourself, the length of the intestine tiger 10m rights 7 m, the cows more than 40 m. In addition, four-and cow's stomach is designed so that allows her to regurgitate if desired, swallowed food and dozhevyvat it, when there are over grass.
Even absurd, in my opinion, the claim that meat meal is especially bad for the child's body, while a vegetarian diet ennobles the child and increases his mental powers, making him healthy and cheerful.
Studies of U.S. pediatricians showed that the ratio IQ (IQ) in children of vegetarian families almost twice lower than in children who consume meat. Food, excluding animal protein, called physiologic difficult. Since the proteins to a greater extent than other biopolymers, food, are in constant motion, updating, maintaining functional and structural integrity of all organs and tissues. For 70 years the average life of the average person should eat (and in most cases, eating) to 2.5 tons of protein. The fact that over a period of protein of the human body is completely updated 200 times.
Invalidity of the assertion that human digestion is "programmed" only vegetarian food, was clear even in the century before. And although it is not accepted to quote the founders of scientific communism, but a smart idea, expressed by someone else, not getting on this stupid. Well, Friedrich Engels, on this occasion commented as follows: "The most significant effect of meat meal has on the human brain, got through it in much greater numbers than before, those substances which are necessary for its nutrition and development, which gave him the opportunity to rapid and complete improve from generation to generation. With the permission of the masters of vegetarians, a person could not become a man without eating meat ... "
Of course, many thousands of years people in different circumstances had to be vegetarian. But time passed, and irreversibly altered the conditions of life.
Cooked meat meal on the fire began to enter the life of our ancestors long ago. For example, in 1982 in Africa between lakes Victoria and Turkana were found the remains of fires, geological age of strata in which they lived - 1.4 million years. Around these ancient hearths were animal bones and stone tools. Later, about 1 million years ago, with the onset of glacial periods to produce plants for food has become much more difficult. People were forced to switch entirely to food, meat, processing it on the fire for better absorption. Glacial periods have passed, but the habit of meat diet was fixed for humanity at the genetic level.
Otherwise become and digestive system. The modern man is simply unable to eat many pounds of vegetables, fruits, and then to his body clock would be extracted from these proteins, and turned them into its own proteins. In addition, a number of essential amino acids, of which very little or not at all in the proteins of plant origin, our bodies synthesize long forgotten.
That's why the problem of shortage of animal protein, particularly in developing countries are increasingly concerned academics and practitioners. In these parts of the world vegetarianism - a forced measure and, unfortunately, is often complicated by disease, low life expectancy and high child mortality.