Let us turn to the subject of health. It is ridiculous to ask: "What is health?". Everyone feels: no disease, good health, can not work. There are, of course, the academic definition, but I will not give them. Is that the one adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO): Health - a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.
Is it important to your health? All respond: "Of course!". Like to say even this: "The main thing - it's great!". 
However, is it really so important? Several years ago I spent a small questionnaires after the newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda", "Week", "Literary Gazette." Asked: "What do you most worried about?" Responses were as follows: first - the economy, the second - crime, the third - the policy, the fourth - the family and society, and only the fifth - health. But ... it until it - health - is there. By itself it does not make people happy. Habit. Other important concerns. But when it does not, when they come of the disease, then immediately everything else fades into the background. And when the old and death lurks nearby ... However wait to talk about old age. 
The importance of health on a national scale corresponds to these personal estimates: 
expenditure on health is 3.8% of gross national product (GNP). Do not compare with the military industrial complex, police, army, not to mention spending a silly policy, which generally are innumerable ... 
Therefore, let's not exaggerate! But it is very badly hurt ... And when the sick children, it entirely - a pipe. 
In general health - a subject that is worth it to talk about it seriously. 
Try to swim out of the ocean of conflicting opinions and advice that has accumulated in the society on this issue. 
At all stages of history of medicine can be traced the two main lines: the first - is the restoration of health disorders with medications and the second - to achieve the same goal by mobilizing 'natural defenses. " Of course, always been a smart doctors who have used both approaches, but in practice, usually dominated one. This is the question of the disease. But there are still health as separate and distinct concepts. Should be, but it seems that in medicine as a science, it is not. 
In fact, what it is - health "state of the body when there is no disease? The time interval between the disease? Our medical practice is, perhaps, his way and treats. If there is no disease so healthy. About the diseases we have already said: they are different, large and small, light and heavy. Medical science has studied them well. Established a nomenclature, numbering several thousand titles. Each described: mechanisms of development, symptoms, course, prognosis, treatment, mortality rate and severity of pain. 
A health with no luck. It seems that everyone is clear: health - the opposite of the disease. Need to measure it. Many health, less likely to develop disease. Few health - illness. So people and think. They say: "poor health", "poor health". 
In the meantime, health is not that other, as derived statistics quality concept boundaries of "normal". Normal body temperature. Normal blood glucose levels. Normal number of red blood cells, normal blood pressure, normal gastric acidity, a normal electrocardiogram. The greater the accumulated measurement techniques and definitions of various indicators, the more of these statistical norms, which describe the "health". Competent? Yes, quite. But what will happen to a man, if these are normal conditions a little push? Perhaps they were all normal rates "float", and begin the disease. 
No, the definition of health only as a set of normal values is not enough. This scientific approach to the concept of "health" should be quantitative. "The number of health" - that's what you need. 
Number of health can be defined as the amount of "spare capacity" of the main functional systems. In turn, the reserve capacity should be expressed through the "reserve ratio". 
Take heart. There cardiac output: the amount of blood in liters, emitted in 1 min. Assume that alone, it gives 4 l in 1 min. With the most vigorous physical work - 20 l. Means "reserve ratio" is: 20 / 4 = 5. 
Heart ejects 4 l 1 min, and this is quite sufficient to provide the body with oxygen alone, it is a normal oxygen saturation of arterial and venous blood. But it can give 20 l 1 min and is capable of delivering the oxygen your muscles, do hard physical work. Consequently, in these conditions remain qualitative health condition - normal levels of blood oxygen saturation. To prove the importance of quantifying the health imagine a busy loafers heart. At rest, it also gives 4 l 1 min. But its maximum capacity of 6 liters. And if this heart of man will be forced to carry heavy load, requiring, for example, release 20 l, then after a few minutes fabrics will be in conditions of severe oxygen starvation, since the muscles will be taken from the blood of nearly all the oxygen. All indicators point to the "abnormal regime." This is not a disease, but may have angina, dizziness, and various other symptoms. Terms and Conditions "static health (normal levels of blood oxygen alone) were observed, but the subject is clearly inferior. 
"Total spare capacity" is not only important characteristic of health status as such, they are no less important to determine the relationship of the organism to the disease. 
When the disease reduces the maximum power of authority, with good reserves still manages to ensure its functioning in a state of rest. 
Or another example: old age. As you age naturally weaken the function of cells, apparently as a result of "the accumulation of noise." Power reserves are reduced. Well, if these reserves are. And if they do not exist? 
Detrenirovannosti dynamics (velocity weakening function) by day, week or month depends on the half-life of protein enzymes, which represent the structure of this function, and the degree detrenirovannosti - the value of the ultimate function, which is minimally necessary to sustain life in conditions of peace. 
There are a few simple truths concerning the training. The first - gradually. Every day or every week, allow for a certain percentage of the achieved function. Second - submaximal workload. Periodically try and use the maximum load somewhat less than the maximum. Third - several times. She, however, does not replace the building loads. Fourth - there is training on the duration and is at maximum. For some required repeatedly for other more important building of maximum loads. Examples of the sport known: the runners are short and long-distance sprinters and stayers. Fifth - overtraining dangerous. 
Depending on the typical characteristics of the stimulus - a function has already been shown in three modes: normal, forced and abnormal. 
The most effective workout for forced mode, but it is dangerous because it can easily cross the border pathology. Secure training - the upper limit of the "Normal" mode, or the so-called submaximal load. 
Cell's ability to exercise is not unlimited. One can imagine the response "trainees": it expresses the dependence of the peak of the function of training time and effort. 
After reaching a certain limit, the addition of a function is terminated. Lower training loads, the lower the maximum. Low loads will not reach a satisfactory fitness, whatever their number to repeat. 
Optimal life - to live long and highly emotional comfort (UDC). It is composed of pleasant and unpleasant components of all the senses - both biological and social. For an incentive to get the most enjoyable with a minimum of unpleasant. Unfortunately, there are still adapting. Nice fast becoming indifferent. To maintain a high UDC, need variety. Adapting to the unpleasant is much weaker. For a little trouble you can get used to, but to a large - no, impossible. Happiness - is different for each person depending on the different "value" of its needs. For one of happiness - is power for the other - things, for the third - information for the fourth - kindness, communication. Most often requires a combination of all these and other components, but in different proportions. 
A healthy person is unhappy, but the patient could not be happier. Health nice, but if it is constant, then the law of adaptation: it no longer notice it does not provide a component of happiness. 
As already mentioned, health - is "spare capacity" of cells, organs, whole organism, 
Yes, the reserves. But what? How many of them to modern man? Is there a possibility of determining their optimum level? 
To find out how much health should be a modern man, we must consider the major body systems. This should take into account their evolution, hence the conditions to civilization, as well as the need for reserves for today's living conditions and opportunities for achieving them. 
The main purpose of reserves of gas exchange and blood flow - oxygen supply to the muscles when performing a lot of physical work. The demand for energy could increase by ten times, respectively, and increased oxygen demand. Weight of other "reasons", such as cold or emotion, require a much smaller increase in the exchange - a factor of 2-3 compared with the rest. 
Not very easy to justify what the minimum power necessary for modern man (not an athlete) just to maintain health when they do not need either for a living, either for beauty or for prestige. Especially if the man and feels so healthy. Such reserves need to be saved from future diseases and reduce the burdens of old age. The probability of trouble rises in direct proportion to age. 
I think that for the prevention of future ailments excellent level of fitness is not required, but need a good and satisfactory enough.

Table 1. Degrees of fitness of the organism by K. Cooper (1976)

The degree of fitness

The maximum consumption of O 2 (milliliters per kilogram of body weight in 1 min.)

Cardiac output (liters / 1 min)

Reserve Ratio: The ratio of the resting state

Very bad


Less than 9

Less than 2














More than 52

Over 20

Over 5

Sports doctor C. Cooper, to whom I shall not again be invoked, offers five levels of fitness, distinguishing them in terms of oxygen consumption during tests with different physical activity. Here is his chart for a 30-year-olds. For older people reduces Cooper claims by 5% every decade of life. 
Regulation of the cardiovascular system is complicated. Heart regulates itself: the power of its decline - systole - the more, the greater the blood arrived in his cell during a pause - diastole. Blood to the heart due to the energy expansion of the aorta and the largest branches. 
The mechanism of training we have already sorted out. That it involved the heart to load. One measure of its loading is the heart rate: heart rate. This is a key indicator of loading, but not value-minute ejection. If the force is busy loafers heart is small, then by a single frequency can not get better cardiac output. Such a person small "stroke volume. The value of emission reductions for one of the trained reaches 150-200 ml, while detrenirovannogo - 40-60. That's why these subjects pulse at rest relative to frequent: 70-80, even 90 to 1 min. Trained heart gives a great stroke volume, so he cuts quite rare to provide a small oxygen demand at rest. Pulse rate at rest in long-distance runners sometimes reduced to 40, and the load is increased to 200. From all this follows an important feature for practice: the level of fitness of the heart can be roughly estimated by heart rate in a state of complete physical rest. 
Heart trains as power cuts, and frequency. Both factors are important in increasing cardiac output at the time of loading. Receptacles train together with the heart.

Amosov NM My system health