Breathing exercises can significantly improve health. During that more than 30 years advocating COMMENT Buteyko. Official science does not favor him, but his arguments seem to me reasonable. The essence of the idea is that the modern civilized people breathe too deeply, washing out the blood carbonic acid, which is an important regulator of the functions of internal organs. The result is bronchospasm, blood vessels, intestines. Develop angina, hypertension, asthma, stomach ulcers, colitis. Himself a Buteyko sure that this explains the many other diseases, but this is an overlap.
Indicator of the installation of the respiratory center as a regulator of the content of C0 2 in the blood is a respiratory pause. Buteyko offers several grades, but I think enough of his "maximum pause." Methods for determining it - like that. Need to sit down, straighten your back, relax and breathe smoothly for 10-20 sec. On the background of another quiet exhalation pinch your nose and mouth with your fingers and note the time on the second hand. And - to endure, as you can. In no event should not be measured pause after taking a deep breath. 
Assessment of this. Norma - 60, 50 and less than the author believes is already pathology: 50 - 1-I of its degree, 40 - 2-I, 30 - 3rd, 20 - 4-I, 10 - 5-I . Below 5 - "frontier life." Excess breaks over 60 assessed as "sverhvynoslivost. Will not bring her graduation, the last digit - 180. 
My pause long ranged between 40 and 30 and only recently reached 60. True, I never practiced. 
The simplest exercise of Buteyko is as follows. Need to breathe so that there was a desire to breathe more deeply. More complex training - big breath. In general, the need to constantly monitor their breathing and breathe the surface, not allowing yourself to take a deep breath or yawn. 
Buteyko gives figures correspond to elongation of the respiratory pause and increasing carbon dioxide content in the blood. Appreciable growth, but not very big. 
Many times I tested it on himself action breath when abdominal pain, which often appear during stressful surgical work. For this I lay on the couch, relaxed and tried to breathe shallow. Approximately twenty minutes later the pain continued unabated, and then disappears. However, sometimes the effect was not, especially when treatment is late. Not acted breath and a headache. The truth and pain medication did not help me too, probably because I did not believe in them. 
Summarize: learn to breath. Not in vain in oriental medicine it is at the forefront. 
Let us turn to the second subsystem - Nutrition. Its purpose in the body is extremely simple: to provide the cells of energy and building materials to the body to carry out its program. 
Needs and resources is undefined. Installed some extreme limits on calories, protein, vitamins, but more for animals than for humans, if we talk about the scientific rigor of the recommendations. 
The unknowns are the coefficient of performance (COP) for the energy and the ability to "reuse building blocks", the decay products of proteins. The higher physical activity, the greater the mass of proteins, so more of them breaks and synthesized anew. Hence, the need for any meal - as in energy and in the building - directly depends on the level of activity. It is known athletes. When trains weightlifter, he needs lots of protein. 
Subsystem "food" can be divided into two parts: the digestion and absorption of food in the gut and absorption of nutrients by cells. 
Food intake and digestion conditions are governed by supply and appetite. Cell metabolism is largely autonomous, but depends on the load of the whole organism and the effects of regulatory systems. 
Appetite - this is our pleasure and our cross. 
The pleasure of eating - a manifestation of the need for food. Physiological need for food. It is believed that hunger occurs when the blood is lacking nutrients, or an empty stomach, or both. All this is true, but the question in a quantitative relationship between the feelings and needs. Strange, but a fat man wants to eat, that is, wants to get energy from outside, when under the skin had enough of this energy. Nature has established a relationship between an exaggerated sense of hunger and need food to protect the body from starvation. This is how it has increased the survival of the species. All "non-greedy" type became extinct. 
Sense of pleasure from eating trainees, that is the significance of his feelings among other increases, if from it there is a significant increase in UDC. At a constant feeling of satisfaction comes adaptation and increasing claims, there is a desire to obtain food more delicious. If the environment provides an abundance of food, the exercise of appetite and excess of receipts over expenditures is inevitable. Stop this process can only be a strong sense of competing - for example, love or belief "to put on weight - wrong and harmful." 
To try to determine what is the optimal nutrition, imagine, on what food and in what mode, formed our whole power system. By all accounts, is an ancient system, it is not as old as our "intellectual" bark, and went from a very distant ancestor. There is no doubt that he was not a natural predator. Our distant relatives of monkeys is sufficient evidence. It is incredible that they are from predators evolved into herbivores. On the contrary, the example of monkeys shows that being born vegetarian, they learn to feast on the meat. Observations of chimpanzees in this area are very interesting. They catch small animals, kill and eat them with great pleasure. Monkeys had not previously reach. 
Enzymes of the digestive juices of most wild animals have a broad spectrum of action: they are able to cleave a variety of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The rub in fat. Shells of many plant cells so strong that the forces of the enzymes they are not enough. But this is not the leaves and stems, branches and trunks. Come to the aid intestinal microbes. If you grind twigs good teeth and lengthen the intestine, so as not to rush the passage of the mass along the long path, micro-organisms that live there, can destroy the cell walls of cellulose. 
In humans, a hefty gut. Forty years ago when I was doing general surgery, then deleted the one guy 5,5 m intestines. Stayed with the meter of fine and one-fifth of large intestines. He survived and adapted to eat. Removal of 2-3 m gut is perfectly safe, a person adapts to this loss within 2 months. 
There is a persistent view (unfortunately, among the doctors too) that gut man - gentle design. It is fit only for the refined foods, and give him a little that pogrubee, so immediately there gastritis, enteritis, colitis, almost volvulus. 
It is a myth! Our stomach and intestines digest any coarse food, except that no needles. 
In the alimentary canal are two main enemies: the overly processed foods and stress system - the hypothalamus and adrenal glands, providing a reaction to stress. Soft, crushed chyme detreniruet muscles of the intestinal wall and possibly enzyme. Prolonged mental stress, negative emotions can distort the nervous regulation of the stomach and large intestine - the two departments most related to the CNS. This factor is especially apparent in the excessive power is highly processed food. 
On the cooked and raw food. One thing is certain: the primitive ancestor of eating foods in their raw form. This is not an argument that the only way it should. You never know what nature did not know how, we should not overestimate it. The question can be put more simply: that adds to the natural food diet, and that diminishes? How important is it? If it's important, you should consider a compromise. 
Cooked food is delicious. No more arguments in favor of the cooked food there. For digestion is not needed, much more important to chew. Good chew. 
What is deprived of food, if it is to cook and fry? Is certain: the heating destroys the vitamins and all biologically active substances. The higher the temperature, the longer operates, the less of these substances remain in the food. Until the complete destruction. No other damage was found. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates and calories are in full. Micronutrients? There is no clarity. Of course, the atoms of a cobalt or molybdenum do not evaporate on the stove, but they can go into the water, which will merge into the sink. The use of microwave ovens corrects this defect. 
Fanatics from syroyadeniya consider fried cutlets as a real poison. Do they have a reason? I have read many books all "naturopaths". They are all very similar: a lot of emotion and very little science. They also have different trends and schools. " Some of them are strict vegetarians, but are allowed to cook, other net Syroyid, others consider raw meat a panacea for all ills. Some require only drink tap water, others - only distilled. The first talk about the ions and the latter brought from fear of chemistry. Some people recommend milk, others reject it completely. I will not give opinions and links, it's funny, but for a long time. 
The most important and fashionable question - about the famine. Book Y. Nikolaev and E. Nilova as well as "The Miracle of fasting," Bragg snapped up instantly. All naturopaths say about the usefulness of hunger. But in addition, there are solid literature and clinics. Sure, there's a method of treatment with hunger. Still, a scientific theory on the effects of total starvation there. 
The main contribution of naturopaths and defenders of the usefulness of hunger that they were dispersed (or almost dispelled), the myth of hunger as a signal of distress. "Pangs of hunger" - it is unpleasant, to be sure, but they are harmful only when hunger lasts. How much? Something between 20 and 40 days, apparently, to different people individually depending on the initial state of the organism, age, activity. By the way, all the literature about the famine and the stories themselves starved show that hunger, as such, will disappear after 2-4 days and appeared again in 30 to 40-th of the body as a cry for help! 
I do not try, do not know. 
It is impossible not to believe Professor Yu Nikolaeva, who treated thousands of starving people with mental illness. I do not think that it is completely wrong. Some beneficial effects on the body there is no doubt, even if in such a complicated case as a psychiatrist, helps. 
Rationale for the therapeutic effect of hunger rather pale: as if the body receives a "discharge", "leisure" and exempt from the "slags". They, these toxins, poisons, allocated as if through the intestine, why, and relies on a daily basis to do a cleansing enema. What kind of toxins and poisons? No one in the explanation does not go: slag - that's all. At the same time, physiology indicates that there are no particular poisonous substances in normally-nourished person is not a way that poisons if they fall, then outside, and then there really can be released with the urine in a clean or inactivated form. But hungry for it is not necessary: the liver to neutralize, and kidneys eliminate. 
The need to "rest" for the digestive system, too little understood. "Rest" is possible only after a significant overeating, but if you always eat with the restrictions, it is hardly necessary by this vacation. 
I have no experience in treating diseases hunger. In our institute treated only one patient. He fasted 40 days: he had been threatened over the amputation of diabetic gangrene. The effect was good. But after 3 months. leg amputated after all. 
I have no doubt that the famine as a method of treatment makes sense only if the subsequent human nutrition remains moderate. 
Another important issue - the consumption of salt. Also the myth that salt is essential organism that a man thus corrected a major defect of nature, have not enforced it with salt in products. 
Of course, the salt may be useful and even necessary for the monotonous diet refined products, such as sugar and peeled grains. But if there is a variety of plant foods, especially raw, to the salt does not dissolve when cooked, they will be quite enough for the body. Tasteless? Yes, of course. But this also has its own reason - less eat it. 
Harmful salts proved. True, only talk about the dangers of excess, and not at all. Salt contributes to the development of hypertension, which is one of the major risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Always give us examples of the Japanese: they eat a lot of salt, they distributed to hypertension and frequent bleeding in the brain. 
Next to the "salt" the issue is the question of water. Too many controversial opinions. Say, for example, that the excess water from fat. What if you drink a lot, it has a harmful effect on the heart and even the kidneys. People also drink differently: some like a lot of tea, and other whole life to drink one cup a day. I do not think that is programmed such a difference. Therefore, has a value of habit: those who like to train your "aquatic center" (there is such a brain stem). The question then arises, how it should exercise, how much water to drink? And again there is no conclusive evidence. Can lead only logical considerations. 
For a healthy heart a lot of you drink is not harmful. When a diseased heart - it's different, caution is necessary. For healthy kidney water is also not harmful: it only trains their excretory function. However, just need to train and ability to concentrate urine, to provide nitrogen products with a minimum of water, if a person, for whatever reasons, have little to drink. 
On the other hand, the use of large quantities of water seems obvious. First, it greatly facilitated the allocation of excess salt, which we do not cease to eat because food tastes better with salt. Secondly, when we drink a lot, then select the urine with low concentrations of all substances which relies to allocate. This reduces the risk of stone formation in the renal pelvis. Finally, the urine stand out all sorts of toxic products, as imposed from outside with food or air, and produced within the body. Many of them have a kidney can not concentrate, and displays at the same concentration as in blood. Then have the greater the amount of urine, the more cleansed body. That's all considerations of water consumption. 
Need more to drink: 2 or even 3 liters of any liquid (including the amount of fruits and vegetables). Yoga, although they are not one hundred percent credibility, too, saying: Drink more water. As far as some naturopaths to have advocated the distilled water, then this is nonsense. Need to drink tea, it's a pretty thing. 
According to the "power" there are several contentious issues. For example, periodically discriminated different products, which seem to be accustomed to people from time immemorial. Everyone remembers the story of the eggs: cholesterol - multiple sclerosis, it is impossible! Then hang up, nothing, it turns out, not the cholesterol and even a quite enough. Or sugar. Also can not be much, too, they say, some specific adverse effects, and again - multiple sclerosis. Next fats, especially animal - butter, bacon: there is only vegetable. And many more all taboos: liver, tongue, smoked - in these products, too much cholesterol. Milk also causes a lot of doubts. Some recommend a milk-vegetable diet, while others claim that milk is unnatural for adults. 
It seems to me that none of the natural product is not harmful if it is consumed in moderation, is already on the ground that the body is adapted to this evolution. That salt - artificially fry - is artificial. The most important thing: constantly overeating and gorging unnatural! 
One can argue about the need for regular meals, strict adherence to time for breakfast, lunch, dinner. It's all agree: "What controversy! Of course, you need to eat regularly! "Further details will result in a" pilot "juice of the stereotype, and more. Only here again the question remains: Is it natural regularity? 
Reply from observations of wildlife is simple: No! This is not an argument, of course. Especially because all the wild animals die young by human standards. We have the same troubles begin after 50 years. 
Not going to argue for a mess of food, expressing only questioned the dogmatic insistence scheduling and preventive eating, even when you do not want when lunchtime came. 
Strict mode and frequency of need for sick and elderly, and healthy irregularity helpful. What, then, train controllers? Only irregular! 
Value of payloads, the amount of food and activity of regulators that control the level of metabolism is determined by body weight. 
Useful if the accumulation of fat in stock? If we proceed from the principle that all natural is useful, yes. Already, at least not harmful. Perhaps the accumulation of fat - this is a compromise? Better a little harm, but to save a life than a perfect figure and death from the cold at the first natural troubles or illness? All of evolution - is a solid compromise between the programs for themselves, "to sort", "for the species." 
However, let us return to nature. Are there any fat monkey? Are there any thick predators? No, it does not happen. Therefore, our distant ancestors at all stages of their evolution were hardly thick. Genes are not provided to humans. But still a little bit of fat certainly is not harmful. However, there is no evidence that it is useful. Tolerant. Reserves of protein, which by all accounts the most important, unfortunately, does not exist. Perhaps because they are unstable, requiring constant exchange? 
Hence, the number of pounds of reserves of "food" can not be assessed? So what? 
Divide the functions of supply: external - and internal digestion - metabolism, cell chemistry. 
A healthy gut is able to "digest nails." This means a good secretion of digestive juices and developed muscular layer of stomach and intestinal walls, provides the correct promotion bolus, with proper mixing and tempo. This can be achieved only by a constant use of a large mass of coarse food in its raw form while limiting fatty and spicy food. True, the great mental stress, negative emotions, even when proper nutrition can not protect a person from pain, spasm, even stomach ulcers or spastic colitis. But the risk they will be much less. 
Coach intestines need, like any other organ, gradual loads. In this case, you must gradually accustom the intestines to crude raw plant foods, increasing its volume and increasing staff. Conditions are the peace of mind, non-fat, an excess of starchy foods and sweets, "polugolod. I put the name in quotes because it really is not hungry and not satiety. There are 4-5 times a day and always get up from the table with a feeling - even a little bit. 
Training exchange: is it possible? Sure, like any function. Its meaning in the normalization. The first condition - weight loss. We have almost everything at the age of forty are overweight. Balanced diet, which holds write - is to adjust the arrival rate under the control of proper body weight. It varies only according to the development of muscle. Muscles we regulate exercise and large amounts of it we do not need. "Bodybuilding" - a style for boys, but not for health. But now is not about that. 
Skinfold thickness - this indicator by which to establish their own body weight. But pinch the skin as a method of measuring the already very accurate. User WHO recommends checking the crease on the back surface of the upper arm. It should be 1 cm 
Does not require much pedantry in the maintenance of minimum weight. At worst a formula: weight = 100 kilograms minus growth is also quite suitable. While the growth of minus 105 and even the growth of minus 110 is better. Especially for tall people and people with poorly developed muscles. And in any case does not allow for age! That's really dangerous, though, because people in their fifties threatened hypertension, multiple sclerosis, and they are very related to excess fat.Training exchange - is training cells to save energy. Method one - put them on the starving. That they were forced to "eat" everything, even not very edible. 
I do not know which is better: all the time strictly behave in a manner that is living hand to mouth, or allow yourself to relax, gain a kilo a week, and then arrange a full hunger strike for two days. 
The problem is that there? First, in principle: food, rich in proteins? Fat? Carbohydrates? Inconsistency in the recommendations of a huge, I have already spoken. I will not even try to criticize. But there are considerations which seem to me reasonable. 
First: no matter what is, and how much to eat. Harmfulness of any product is low, if the total power is kept at the limit and the weight is kept to minimum numbers. If this still give a physical load is quite good: all burn. 
Second: the exclusive role of vitamins, minerals and other biologically active substances. You can get them only from fresh fruits and vegetables. How much? If you do the calculations on the need for vitamins and their contents in vegetables and fruits, it turns out that the most minimal dose of 300 g per day. I think you need 500 grams What are the benefits? Different: the more varied the better. Naturopaths give sensible advice: roots, leaves and fruits. Replacement of raw vegetables cooked imperfect. Vitamin pills are necessary, although it can not replace the greens. 
Third: the fats. They are harmful or not harmful? To bad subject of the first two conditions can not be harmful. To me, they seem not so much harmful as insidious: too many calories contain 9 to 1 in 
However, here I will focus: studies on atherosclerosis have proven harmful animal fats. However, I think that with a body weight (growth minus 100) and low cholesterol (less than 200) this harm is exaggerated. 
Fourth: The proteins. Also created the myth that we need complete proteins, the content of amino acids that are present only in animals but not in plant foods. I will not argue: indeed, there are important amino acids, and not in any plants they could find. 
So much easier to get them out of meat, milk, eggs, than to try to discover the intricate sets of plant products with nuts, apricot seeds, pollen and other things. No need to vegetarian pedantry. Animal proteins are available. Question - in quantity. People in developed countries eat too much animal protein. Milk and some meat (grams of 50!) And give those essential amino acids, which are baked so nutritionists. No, do not get involved in protein! 
There are still carbs. "Sugar is needed for the brain", "No, sugar promotes sclerosis" - and so on. Needless to think about it, if all the major conditions: body weight, the required number of "plant material", a little animal protein. In any case, sugar is worse bread, which has a squirrel. 
Very useful, fruit and vegetable juices, especially unsweetened. You can drink them in unlimited quantities, always different. With soups, by contrast, requires restraint - they have a lot of salt. 
Struggle with their own appetite - this is the main problem is food for a healthy person, leading an active lifestyle. Most diets just on her and focus. How would fill a good food and not gain weight. Alas! It is impossible. 
My rules of supply. First of all, do not eat prophylactically. Never took breakfast at the clinic. Only if very tired after the operation, then drank a cup of tea and ate two apples. Breakfast is my big, rough and nekaloriyny: 300 g of fresh fruit or cabbage, two potatoes or bread and a cup of coffee with milk. Lunch irregularly - come at different times. Eat salad in the morning, the first, second - no bread, no fat, with a minimum of meat with yogurt, tea or juice in the third. Dinner: Tea with sugar vprikusku, bread - it seems to me a delicious as a cake, cheese, some sausage, cheese. More fruits of the season. In general, the night I was hungry. Per day in terms of gaining a lot, but by calories - just to measure flow at a constant body weight of 52-55 kg (height 168 cm I). 
No need to count calories and grams. Different lifestyles, different exchanges - is impossible to determine how many calories you need, it's hard to choose the proper diet. Table calorie foods should be aware of guideline only: what foods should be avoided, but it's safe. The only measuring tool that need to be guided - it scales.
Subsystem "food" - important for health. Some naturopaths consider it determines health.
Eat raw food, better still go hungry day a week for two or three - once a month and two hunger strikes in a year for two weeks - and you will be healthy. So recommended Bragg. I will not deny. 
Proper nutrition - a necessary but insufficient condition for health. Can not be neglected in any case. The worse are the other components of the regime, the stricter should be the diet. Conversely, when high physical fitness, training, and calm the psyche can no longer afford to "errors" in the diet. Apparently, there is a dependence on age: old and small need of rigor, strong young permissible indulgence. 
Thermoregulatory system. About her little I can say. The word "cold" one of the most popular, therefore, to health has a direct relationship, but there is no clarity. It is unclear why the cooling, when there is dampness catarrh of the nose, throat, bronchi and lungs. Itself is questionable relationship between cooling and disease. Although there is no real statistics and can not be denied, but exceptions are also very much. 
Maintain a constant body temperature - is to maintain a balance between heat production and heat loss. Direct "heating system" organism does not possess. Production of heat - a side effect of any transformation of energy. When you need to get warm even to save his life, had to resort to working muscles, at least in the form of tremors, if not walking or running. Another matter - heat, it is regulated very active. When cold, it can be stopped, if the narrow vessels of the skin to such an extent that its surface was cold and the temperature difference between body and air or water has decreased. But it's not cold, or freeze tissue to be frostbite. However, in order to prevent this, little automation, require active steps to protect: clothing or friction. And then practice. 
Adapting to the heat very different properties. Need to slow down the maximum heat production, ie, any muscular activity, and also to maximize heat transfer. First, it is enough to raise the temperature of the skin a good circulation of blood through the skin vessels, but when the heat exceeds 30 ° C and removed all the clothes, which can come into action pot. Evaporation it is possible to cool the body below the outside temperature - acts latent heat of boiling. To increase blood circulation in the skin requires additional cardiac output, and the venous blood returned to it without using up their oxygen, but it's not scary. Breathing becomes shallow, the required level of carbon dioxide can hold, slowed all activity. No, people live in the tropics is clearly more difficult than the northerners. 
Coaching cold - a good thing. The first - a physiological stress, therefore, resistance to stress. The second - the training of metabolic processes in cells of the skin teaches them to maintain the "right chemistry" under unusual environmental conditions and activates the "power" - the mitochondria that produce energy. Third - strengthens the cardiovascular system, as well as physical work. Training of heat is also possible, but by itself it can hardly have such a beneficial effect as a cold. 
A few more words about the cold. Tempering increases the resistance of colds. It is known from time immemorial. There are several explanations: the mucous membranes of nasopharynx learn to maintain a constant temperature and cold. In unquenched possible local cooling and braking functions of protective mucosal cells. Another explanation: cooling untrained - a lot of stress, it leads to inhibition of the immune system. In both cases the infection may develop in connection with an imbalance between aggressive microbes and host defense. Unfortunately, this is only speculation. 
Based on the general principles of training functions for the summer should detrenirovatsya thermoregulation. Therefore, for the training takes time. So it happens: the fall sick more often. 
Methods of hardening are simple: do not wrap up and endure the cold. Run fast. Zachihal, fear not. Pass, and a useful trail will need to continue as he had begun. If you give up after the first cold, is not worth starting. I think that most reasonable conditioning - it's easy to dress. Of course, you can take a cool shower or bath, rubbing in cold water - is well-known techniques. Doctors recommend them for "strengthening the nervous system." All right, coach. 
It is particularly important tempered young children. The system is designed for them a long time: there is a table of how the rate of lowering the temperature of water in the bath. But most importantly - do not coddle! 
I will not dwell on the system of connective tissue and cellular protection. The science of health in relation to it offers just the right diet to a "building material". You can even give irresponsible advice to refrain from stress because of adrenal hormones inhibit the function of immunity. The impact on the system load control regime was not investigated. 
The health status of the immune system is almost easy to check for resistance to infection. Small ones do not have to suppurate. Should not be pustular skin diseases. Colds, sore throats, bronchitis - all these "catarrh of the upper respiratory tract" should proceed normally, take as much time as needed for the development of immunity to the new microbe - about one to two weeks. Completely avoid these diseases is not possible, but there must be no more than two or three a year for non-severe course. Objective indicator of the health of connective tissue is a normal blood test.

Amosov NM My system health