Hardening - a system of hygienic measures aimed at improving the body's resistance to adverse effects of various meteorological factors (cold, heat, solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure). Hardening of the body - a powerful curative agent - an important and necessary element in a healthy way of life. It was established that the systematic quenching reduces the likelihood of colds 4 times, and even eliminate their occurrence. Hardening has restorative effects on the body, increases the tone of the central nervous system, improves circulation, normalizes metabolism, improves the body's adaptability to the adverse effects of the environment, contributes to enhancing mental and physical performance. Repeated exposure of specific stimuli under the influence of nervous regulation in the body are formed certain functional systems that provide an adaptive effect. Adaptive reactions are formed in the nervous system, endocrine unit, in the organs, tissues and cells. The organism has a chance painlessly transfer excessive exposure to cold, heat, etc. For example, regular quenched with cold water increases heat production and increases skin temperature, while it thins the stratum corneum, which reduces the intensity of stimulation of receptors embedded in it. All this enhances the body's resistance to low temperature. When tempering improves not only the homeostatic reactions of the organism, but also expands the range of portable vibration of the internal environment.
Start tempering can be virtually any age. The sooner it is started, the healthier and more resistant to environmental influences is an organism. Not recommended for tempering procedures in acute exacerbation of chronic diseases and ailments. Chill - it means to be strengthened. Hardening includes hygienic procedures that awaken dormant forces of the body, directing them to recovery. Tempered person can endure in any situation remains calm, cheerful, optimistic, has a high potential for life. He has the sober judgments and the clarity of thought. Training of temperature regulation in humans occurs all year round. Summer, during the heat, the body adapts by activating the cooling system in winter - activating the system of heat. The skin contains a lot of cold receptors - 12-15 times greater than the heat. For example, on 1 square centimeter of skin is about 100 painful nerve endings, 12-15 cold nerve endings and 1-2 heat points. Therefore, the skin is more sensitive to cold, and it is so important role in tempering the body. Water treatment - the most intense of tempering procedures. as water has a thermal conductivity 28 times greater than air. The main factor is the tempering temperature of the water. Besides dousing shower and bath have also mechanical effects. Play a role and dissolved minerals, gases and liquids. Even a simple face wash is tempering procedures. First, face and ears need to wash with warm water and then rinsed with cold water. Evolutionarily person is better adapted to cold. It can be seen in small children - they are easier to tolerate a decrease in temperature by 3-5 ° C, but increase it even at 1 ° C increases the risk of disease. Man quenched year-round necessity, because
circumstances: rain, cold wind, cold winter ...
Sharp fluctuations in temperature from -20 ° C outside and +20 ° C indoor exercise a kind of thermal massage of blood vessels: the cold, their clearance is reduced and the warmth - is increasing. Systemic perfusion and bathing in cold water is a powerful stimulator of vitality and a source of optimism. Water has high heat capacity, so that is the most powerful and rapid quenching factor. Cold washing, wiping, wrapping, pouring, showers, bathtubs, etc. well train all body systems, strengthening them. Beginners need to train yourself hardening wash hands and face with cold water, and gargle and wash his feet. Cold clears, opens channels for the perception of high frequency vibrations, restores the disturbed flow of energy and eliminates the deficit. Especially improves circulation of the brain, heart and kidneys. Tempering is not only a prophylactic infectious disease, but also normalizes impaired body functions, primarily the cardiovascular, nervous system and psyche.
The principles of hardening 
1. Gradually, or shock. If disrupted thermoregulation, which is accompanied by doubts about the state of health, stamina, fear of open windows and soaked shoes, it is necessary to observe a gradual hardening. Gradualism is to increase the dosage of procedures that start with small doses and simplest forms. Gradually increase the time needed to effect tempering factors and jump to the procedures for greater impact. Gradualism will remove concerns that the cold can hurt. With the gradual addiction to cold processes go smoothly and without complications. 

When impatient nature, excess force, feeling bored by the word "gradually" fanatical desire as quickly as possible healthier suitable shock hardening. In shock hardening an organism undergoes a short time a strong exposure to cold. With this method, a system of self-control very quickly switched to full power. Hormones from the skin and adrenal rush into the internal organs and muscles, making tangible changes. Of course, this could begin the forced removal of toxins in the form of runny nose and cough, but it must be remembered that this state is temporary, useful and accelerating the healing process.

2. Systematically. In addition to effects on the body of natural factors, we must accustom ourselves to the regular implementation of tempering procedures, noshe-
of a more light clothing, walking barefoot in the room, washing and dousing with cold water, etc. With regular procedures each subsequent exposure reinforces and strengthens the foregoing, due to which there is a change of reactions to external stimuli. Long breaks in quenched lead to a weakening or complete loss of acquired protective reactions. Typically 2-3 weeks after cessation of the procedures the body's resistance to tempering factor is reduced.

3. Individually. Choose a dosage and form of tempering procedures necessary given individual to individual (age, health, etc.). This is because the body's response to tempering procedures in different people varies. People who are physically underdeveloped or recently undergone any disease is much more sensitive to external factors. In older people and children also have their peculiarities.
4. Adequately. In tempering adhere to this principle is necessary. Even with an excellent sense of being in the freezing cold in shorts and t-shirt should not roam the streets in such attire, scaring passers-by. Also, do not bring themselves to burn in the sun baths and the loss of sensitivity at tempering the cold. Do not go to extremes!
5. Diverse. Use different ways of hardening: the air and sun baths, bathing in the shower and water reservoirs; walking barefoot on the ground and the snow, baths, etc.
A variety of methods and forms of tempering procedures provides a comprehensive hardening. The body's resistance increases only to the stimulus, the action of which he was repeatedly subjected. For example, the re-action cold causes an increase in stability only to cold, heat re-action - only to heat. Therefore, the tempering is carried out in full when the body is systematically operates a complex variety of factors, for example, that happens when you swim in open water.
6. Active. The effectiveness of hardening increases if to hold it in active mode, ie performing procedures during any exercise or muscular work. For example, when quenched with cold exercise covers the heat transfer by increasing heat production, which makes it easier to increase the intensity of cold stimuli than in passive mode. Therefore, studies such sports as swimming, skiing, skating, athletics and tourism are high tempering effect.
7. Compatibility. The combination of general and local procedures greatly increases the body's resistance to unfavorable external factors. With an overall hardening procedures exposed the entire surface of the body, local - individual plots. Local procedures have less intense than common, but if
affect the most sensitive to the cooling of parts of the body: feet, throat, neck, etc. - you can achieve a good tempering effect.

8. Controlled. In the process of tempering requires constant self-control. Indicators of proper hardening and its positive factors are the deep sleep, good appetite, increased efficiency, being cheerful, positive emotions, etc.

9. Positively. All tempering procedures much better place and affect the body if they are carried out against a background of positive emotions and desires to engage in an active quenching.

Baranova, Svetlana. Strengthening the body