Diabetes is directly related to metabolic disorders, specifically in nedousvoenii body glucose. Diabetes type 2 is often appears in obesity.
If you're sick of diabetes nutrition will play a very important role. Since diabetes mellitus type 2 right diet is the main method of treatment (mild form). But even for moderate and severe forms of diabetes therapeutic diet must be combined with insulin or antidiabetic drugs.
And so how do you want us to correctly identify normal foods that contain carbohydrates? All of these products are very different in their calorie content, composition, physical properties. Measure all the important parameters of food to any one way is impossible. It is also very difficult to determine the right amount of daily allowance of food, not having the right knowledge. Therefore, to facilitate you with this task, nutritionists introduced a concept such as bread unit.
Bread unit is a kind of "scoop" to calculate the amount of carbohydrates. It does not matter any kind, nor the amount of product - whether it is bread, or an apple, 1-on bread unit contains about 15 grams of digestible carbohydrates. Bread unit increases the level of blood sugar is 2.8 mmol / L, and requires for its assimilation of 2 units of insulin.
This bread has introduced a special unit for patients with diabetes who receive insulin. After all, for these patients is important to observe the daily rate of carbohydrates, which corresponds to injected insulin. Otherwise, patients would be a reduction or an increase in blood sugar: hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Thanks bread unit patients are able to competently prepare the menu.
For example: 0.5 cups oatmeal or buckwheat, 25-30 grams of white or brown bread, 2-a prune, one medium-sized apple, etc. correspond to one unit of bread.
So a day one should get around 18-25 grain units. Their best raspredilit to 6 meals as follows: breakfast, lunch, dinner around 5 bread units, in the afternoon of 2 CL. u Most of the products that contain carbohydrates should come to the 1st half of the day.
The principles of clinical nutrition:
- The amount of energy that comes from food must meet energy cost of patient;
- Fat, protein and carbohydrates should be balanced;
- Meal should be a fraction - 5-6 fractionated.
Patients who are overweight, it is necessary to include in your diet the following vegetables: green beans, sauerkraut and fresh cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce, spinach. To improve liver function must be introduced into the diet foods such as oatmeal, cottage cheese, soy and also limited in the diet of fried food, fish and meat broths.
For diabetic patients have many choices medical diet, but at home is almost possible to use only one (diet number 9).
- Dishes and side dishes of beans, grains, pasta (a little, occasionally, with the need to reduce the amount of grain in the diet);
- Dishes and side dishes of vegetables (turnip, zucchini, cabbage (white, colored), potatoes, leafy greens, carrots, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, beets) raw, boiled and baked;
- Poultry and meat (beef, turkey, rabbit, lean pork, beef in aspic or boiled);
- Fish dishes, the best low-fat (saffron cod, carp, perch, pike, cod and others in aspic or boiled);
- Eggs (1-2 units per day in the form of a soft-boiled or scrambled eggs, and can be added to other dishes);
- Sour and sweet-sour berries and fruit (oranges, cranberries, currants, lemons, apples Antonov, etc.) 150-200 gr. a day in the raw form, or as a compote on sorbitol or xylitol;
- Dairy products (yogurt, milk (unless authorized by a physician), yogurt (1-2 glasses a day), cottage cheese (50-200 g. Per day)) in physical form or in the form of puddings, cheesecakes or curd;
- Mild sauce (milk, with vegetable broth and vinegar, with vegetables, with tomato puree);
- Butter and vegetable oil (40 g. Per day in any form, as well as for cooking);
- Soups (with vegetable broth or on low fish or meat broth with vegetables (no more than 2-oh once a week);
- Bread and bakery products, preferably black (up to 350 g. Per day, and only when prescribed by a physician);
- Tea with milk, weak coffee, fruit and berry juices, tomato juice (total, along with soup, allowed no more than 5 glasses of fluid per day).
Raschion diabetes mellitus should be rich in vitamins, also useful to add in food and baking yeast and broth hips.
- alcoholic beverages;
- bananas, grapes, raisins;
- jam, pastries, sweets, honey, ice cream, baking, chocolate and other sweets;
- smoked, spicy, spicy, salty snacks and dishes, pork and mutton fat;
- pepper and mustard;
sugar can only in small quantities and only to resolve the physician.